- 1603 - Elizabeth I, England's virgin queen, died childless and her heir was James VI of Scotland. He moved his court to London.
- 1605 - Some Catholic men tried to murder the King and blow up the Parliament because they feared their religion was threatened by this Protestant king. Guy Fawkes and the rest of the conspirers were executed. Nowadays Guy Fawkes night is celebrated with bonfires all over Britain.
- 1650 - The limits to Scotland's freedom, and its ability to lord it over its southern neighbour, were radically re-defined during the period of religious ferment thrown up by the English Civil War. Oliver Cronwell became a very powerful man. Eventually, Charles I was executed and many Scots backed his son Charles II but they were defeated by Cromwell's forces at the Battle of Dunbar in 1650. The age of the Stuart kings was dead and buried. The puritan Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland had arrived.
- 1707 - Scotland's century of semi-detachment, sharing a monarch but chaving its own parliament, came to an end in a period of poor harvests. A union of the Scottish and English Parliaments was reached and power moved to Westminster, in London.
- 1745 - Many Scots missed their independence and these Jacobites tried to restore the Stuart Monarchy but they were beaten.
- 1797 - Curing the Enlightenment period there were many prominent Scottish intellectuals such as Adam Smith, David Hume and James Hutton.
- 1820 - There was social struggle over economic hardship, led by Andrew Hardie and John Baird but they were executed and the rising was over.
- 1885 - The post of Secretary of Scotland was re-established and the Scottish Office was created to administer central government functions in Scotland. Scotland had its own identity, recognised by the state, but firmly part of the United Kingdom.
- 1922 - Culture was meant to create a Scottish identity and there was a revival of Scottish literature. Hugh MacDiarmid became, in 1928, a founding member of the National Party of Scotland, the forerunner of the present Scottish National Party.
- 1979 - The idea of getting higher levels of independence from the Union led many to think of a referendum on devolution.
- 1997 - Tony Blair's Labour Party let the Scottish electorate decide on having their own parliament. Two years later, the parliament was a reality. Scotland had its own distinctive voice within the United Kingdom.
- 2011 - In 2011 under the proportional system used to elect members of the Scottish Parliament, the SNP won an overall majority.
- 2014 - The Referendum to vote for or agains independence will take place on the 18th of September.
text adapted from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-16649184
REASONS FOR AND AGAINST THE INDEPENDENCE
MAIN SCOTTISH INVENTIONS
- criminal fingerprinting (1880, by Surgeon Dr Henry Faulds)
- fax machine (1843 to 1846, by Alexander Bain)
- flushing toilet (1775, by Alexander Cumming)
- golf (1672)
- penicillin (1928, by Alexander Fleming)
- radar (1892, by Sir Robert Watson-Watt)
- raincoats (1824, by Charles Macintosh)
- telephone (1876, by Alexander Graham Bell)
read more at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/scottish-independence/11016527/Scottish-independence-what-did-Scotland-ever-bring-to-the-world.html